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By , the death of Buddy Holly, The Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens in a plane crash, the departure of Elvis for the army, the retirement of Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions of Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry and the breaking of the payola scandal which implicated major figures, including Alan Freed, in bribery and corruption in promoting individual acts or songs , gave a sense that the rock and roll era established at that point had come to an end.

The term pop has been used since the early 20th century to refer to popular music in general, but from the mids it began to be used for a distinct genre, aimed at a youth market, often characterized as a softer alternative to rock and roll. The period of the later s and early s has traditionally been seen as an era of hiatus for rock and roll. Rock and roll had not disappeared at the end of the s and some of its energy can be seen in the Twist dance craze of the early s, mainly benefiting the career of Chubby Checker.

Cliff Richard had the first British rock and roll hit with " Move It ", effectively ushering in the sound of British rock.

Also significant was the advent of soul music as a major commercial force. The instrumental rock and roll of performers such as Duane Eddy , Link Wray and the Ventures was developed by Dick Dale , who added distinctive "wet" reverb , rapid alternate picking, and Middle Eastern and Mexican influences.

He produced the regional hit " Let's Go Trippin' " in and launched the surf music craze, following up with songs like " Misirlou " Surf music achieved its greatest commercial success as vocal music, particularly the work of the Beach Boys , formed in in Southern California.

Their early albums included both instrumental surf rock among them covers of music by Dick Dale and vocal songs, drawing on rock and roll and doo wop and the close harmonies of vocal pop acts like the Four Freshmen. They drew on a wide range of American influences including s rock and roll, soul, rhythm and blues, and surf music, [69] initially reinterpreting standard American tunes and playing for dancers.

Bands like the Animals from Newcastle and Them from Belfast , [70] and particularly those from London like the Rolling Stones and the Yardbirds , were much more directly influenced by rhythm and blues and later blues music. Beat bands tended towards "bouncy, irresistible melodies", while early British blues acts tended towards less sexually innocent, more aggressive songs, often adopting an anti-establishment stance.

There was, however, particularly in the early stages, considerable musical crossover between the two tendencies. During the week of 4 April , the Beatles held twelve positions on the Billboard Hot singles chart, including the entire top five.

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The Beatles went on to become the biggest selling rock band of all time and they were followed into the US charts by numerous British bands. The British Invasion helped internationalize the production of rock and roll, opening the door for subsequent British and Irish performers to achieve international success. Garage rock was a raw form of rock music, particularly prevalent in North America in the mids and so called because of the perception that it was rehearsed in the suburban family garage.

There were also regional variations in many parts of the country with flourishing scenes particularly in California and Texas. The style had been evolving from regional scenes as early as The British Invasion greatly influenced garage bands, providing them with a national audience, leading many often surf or hot rod groups to adopt a British influence, and encouraging many more groups to form.

It is generally agreed that garage rock peaked both commercially and artistically around Particularly significant was the release of Blues Breakers with Eric Clapton Beano album , considered one of the seminal British blues recordings and the sound of which was much emulated in both Britain and the United States. Many of the songs on their first three albums, and occasionally later in their careers, were expansions on traditional blues songs.

In America, blues rock had been pioneered in the early s by guitarist Lonnie Mack , [99] but the genre began to take off in the mids as acts developed a sound similar to British blues musicians. Geils Band and Jimi Hendrix with his power trios , the Jimi Hendrix Experience which included two British members, and was founded in Britain , and Band of Gypsys , whose guitar virtuosity and showmanship would be among the most emulated of the decade.

Early blues rock bands often emulated jazz, playing long, involved improvisations, which would later be a major element of progressive rock. From about bands like Cream and the Jimi Hendrix Experience had moved away from purely blues-based music into psychedelia. By the s, the scene that had developed out of the American folk music revival had grown to a major movement, utilising traditional music and new compositions in a traditional style, usually on acoustic instruments.

Early attempts to combine elements of folk and rock included the Animals' " House of the Rising Sun " , which was the first commercially successful folk song to be recorded with rock and roll instrumentation [] and the Beatles " I'm a Loser " , arguably the first Beatles song to be influenced directly by Dylan. Tambourine Man " which topped the charts in These acts directly influenced British performers like Donovan and Fairport Convention.

Folk-rock reached its peak of commercial popularity in the period —68, before many acts moved off in a variety of directions, including Dylan and the Byrds, who began to develop country rock. Psychedelic music's LSD -inspired vibe began in the folk scene. Progressive rock, a term sometimes used interchangeably with art rock , moved beyond established musical formulas by experimenting with different instruments, song types, and forms.

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Instrumentals were common, while songs with lyrics were sometimes conceptual, abstract, or based in fantasy and science fiction. Greater commercial success was enjoyed by Pink Floyd, who also moved away from psychedelia after the departure of Syd Barrett in , with The Dark Side of the Moon , seen as a masterpiece of the genre, becoming one of the best-selling albums of all time.

The instrumental strand of the genre resulted in albums like Mike Oldfield 's Tubular Bells , the first record, and worldwide hit, for the Virgin Records label, which became a mainstay of the genre. In the late s, jazz-rock emerged as a distinct subgenre out of the blues-rock, psychedelic, and progressive rock scenes, mixing the power of rock with the musical complexity and improvisational elements of jazz. AllMusic states that the term jazz-rock "may refer to the loudest, wildest, most electrified fusion bands from the jazz camp, but most often it describes performers coming from the rock side of the equation.

In Britain the subgenre of blues rock, and many of its leading figures, like Ginger Baker and Jack Bruce of the Eric Clapton -fronted band Cream , had emerged from the British jazz scene. Often highlighted as the first true jazz-rock recording is the only album by the relatively obscure New York-based the Free Spirits with Out of Sight and Sound British acts to emerge in the same period from the blues scene, to make use of the tonal and improvisational aspects of jazz, included Nucleus [] and the Graham Bond and John Mayall spin-off Colosseum.

From the psychedelic rock and the Canterbury scenes came Soft Machine, who, it has been suggested, produced one of the artistically successfully fusions of the two genres. Perhaps the most critically acclaimed fusion came from the jazz side of the equation, with Miles Davis , particularly influenced by the work of Hendrix, incorporating rock instrumentation into his sound for the album Bitches Brew It was a major influence on subsequent rock-influenced jazz artists, including Herbie Hancock , Chick Corea and Weather Report.

Reflecting on developments in rock music at the start of the s, Robert Christgau later wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies :. The decade is, of course, an arbitrary schema itself—time doesn't just execute a neat turn toward the future every ten years. But like a lot of artificial concepts—money, say—the category does take on a reality of its own once people figure out how to put it to work. In popular music, embracing the '70s meant both an elitist withdrawal from the messy concert and counterculture scene and a profiteering pursuit of the lowest common denominator in FM radio and album rock.

Rock saw greater commodification during this decade, turning into a multibillion-dollar industry and doubling its market while, as Christgau noted, suffering a significant "loss of cultural prestige". In the '70s the powerful took over, as rock industrialists capitalized on the national mood to reduce potent music to an often reactionary species of entertainment—and to transmute rock's popular base from the audience to market. Roots rock is the term now used to describe a move away from what some saw as the excesses of the psychedelic scene, to a more basic form of rock and roll that incorporated its original influences, particularly country and folk music, leading to the creation of country rock and Southern rock.

The founders of Southern rock are usually thought to be the Allman Brothers Band, who developed a distinctive sound, largely derived from blues rock , but incorporating elements of boogie , soul, and country in the early s. Glam rock emerged from the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late s and can be seen as both an extension of and reaction against those trends.

The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan , who had renamed his folk duo to T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the s. Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in December wearing glitter, to perform what would be his first number 1 single " Ride a White Swan ".

From the late s it became common to divide mainstream rock music into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was often derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies.

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From the late s the term "heavy metal" began to be used to describe some hard rock played with even more volume and intensity, first as an adjective and by the early s as a noun. Led Zeppelin added elements of fantasy to their riff laden blues-rock, Deep Purple brought in symphonic and medieval interests from their progressive rock phase and Black Sabbath introduced facets of the gothic and modal harmony , helping to produce a "darker" sound. Rock, mostly the heavy metal genre, has been criticized by some Christian leaders, who have condemned it as immoral, anti-Christian and even demonic.

Since the s Christian rock performers have gained mainstream success, including figures such as the American gospel-to-pop crossover artist Amy Grant and the British singer Cliff Richard. D and Collective Soul. Punk rock was developed between and in the United States and the United Kingdom. Rooted in garage rock and other forms of what is now known as protopunk music, punk rock bands eschewed the perceived excesses of mainstream s rock. Punk embraces a DIY do it yourself ethic , with many bands self-producing their recordings and distributing them through informal channels.

Punk quickly, though briefly, became a major cultural phenomenon in the United Kingdom. For the most part, punk took root in local scenes that tended to reject association with the mainstream. An associated punk subculture emerged, expressing youthful rebellion and characterized by distinctive clothing styles and a variety of anti-authoritarian ideologies.

By the beginning of the s, faster, more aggressive styles such as hardcore and Oi!

Although punk rock was a significant social and musical phenomenon, it achieved less in the way of record sales being distributed by small specialty labels such as Stiff Records , [] or American radio airplay as the radio scene continued to be dominated by mainstream formats such as disco and album-oriented rock.

If hardcore most directly pursued the stripped down aesthetic of punk, and new wave came to represent its commercial wing, post-punk emerged in the later s and early s as its more artistic and challenging side. The first wave of British post-punk included Gang of Four , Siouxsie and the Banshees and Joy Division , who placed less emphasis on art than their US counterparts and more on the dark emotional qualities of their music.


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The second generation of British post-punk bands that broke through in the early s, including the Fall , the Pop Group , the Mekons , Echo and the Bunnymen and the Teardrop Explodes , tended to move away from dark sonic landscapes.